Gettier problems or cases are named in honor of the American philosopher Edmund Gettier, who discovered them in They function as challenges to the. Edmund Gettier is Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. This short piece, published in , seemed to many decisively to refute an. In , Edmund Gettier challenged the whole notion of what constitutes knowledge. Until he published a short paper that year called ‘Is Justified True Belief.

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The Gettier Problem No Longer a Problem

Peter Singer, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality”. Saint Anselm, “The Ontological Argument”.

Includes the fake-barns Gettier case. An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

Having posed those edmind, though, we should realize that they are merely representative of a more general epistemological line of inquiry. Again, it seems as though Luke does not “know” that Mark is in the room, even though it is claimed he has a justified true belief that Mark is in the room, but it is not nearly so clear that the perceptual belief that “Mark is in the room” was inferred from any premises at all, let alone any false ones, nor led to significant conclusions on its own; Luke did not seem to be reasoning about anything; “Mark is in the room” seems to have been part of what he seemed to see.

Specifically, what are the details of ordinary situations that allow them not gettisr be Gettier situations — and hence edmudn allow them to contain knowledge? Often, they talk of deviant causal chains. Since the initial philosophical description in of Gettier cases, the project of responding to them so as to understand what it is to know that p has often been central to the practice of analytic epistemology. Robert Edmmund, Excerpt from Philosophical Explanations.


However, Bob had no knowledge of A. And because of that luck say epistemologists in generalthe belief fails to be knowledge. The following two generic features also help to constitute Gettier cases: Analytic Epistemology and Experimental Philosophy. Pollock and Joseph Cruz have stated that the Gettier problem has “fundamentally altered the character of contemporary epistemology” and has become “a central problem of epistemology since it poses a clear barrier to analyzing knowledge”.

Often, the assumption is made that somehow it can — and will, one of these days — be solved. If it is incorrect instead, then — no matter what else is good or useful about it — it is not knowledge. As the edmunv article proceeds, we will refer to this belief several times more.

Edmund Gettier

Let us suppose that Smith sees the entailment from d to eand accepts e on the grounds of dfor which he has strong evidence. Hence, JTB is false if there is even one actual or possible Gettier situation in which some justified true belief fails to be knowledge. Hence, a real possibility has been raised that epistemologists, in how they interpret Gettier cases, are not so accurately representative of people in general.

Eedmund is no consensus, however, that any one of the attempts to getiter the Gettier challenge has succeeded in fully defining what it is to have knowledge of a truth or fact. It has also been suggested that the failing within Gettier situations is one of causality, with the justified true belief being caused — generated, brought about — in too odd or abnormal a way for it to be knowledge.

The latter evmund says that if the only falsehoods in your evidence for p are ones which you could discard, and ones whose absence would not seriously weaken your evidence for p, then with all else being equal your justification is adequate for giving you knowledge that p.

Probably the most common way for this to occur involves the specific analyses incorporating, in turn, further analyses of some or all of belief, truth, and justification. Proposition e is then true, though proposition dfrom which Smith inferred eis false. Elijah Chudnoff – – Dialectica 65 4: The problem always arises when the given justification has nothing to do with what really makes the proposition true.


Gettier has tried to use semantic obscurity to trick the reader into believing that justified true belief is not enough for knowledge.

Gettier Problems | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

In this case, Smith is clearly justified in believing that e is true. You rely on your senses, taking for granted — as one normally would — that the situation is normal.

The empirical research by Weinberg, Nichols, and Stich asked a wider variety of people — including ones from outside of university or college settings — about Gettier cases. Another scenario by Brian Skyrms is “The Pyromaniac”, [6] in which a struck match lights not for gettied reasons the pyromaniac imagines but because of some unknown “Q radiation”. The Knowing Luckily Proposal allows that this is possible — that this is a conceivable form for some knowledge to take.

Notice that Smith is not thereby guessing. In exmund sense, it would be to know that p less securely or stably or dependably, more fleetingly or unpredictably. There is a prima facie case, at any rate, for regarding justificatory fallibility with concern in this setting. Salmon, “The Problem of Induction”.

getttier Robert Nozick, “Justice and Entitlement”. Although the multitude of actual and possible Gettier cases differ in their details, some characteristics unite them. These are inclusive disjunctions, not exclusive. Find it on Scholar.