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“Frontier Justice” | Javier Cikota –

The second investigation determined that there had not been any wrongdoing in the first investigation, and the file had simply gotten lost. They not only read and commented fl several of its chapters, but they provided me with a chance to meet and engage with scholars from throughout California. Each case left behind extensive paper records, documenting initial complaints, depositions, investigations, correspondence, summaries, and legal opinions.

The absenteeism of the governors had grown so problematic that the national government decreed stricter limits on vacations and licenses, effectively compelling governors to live in the frontier.

The first chapter looks at how the state was constructed and how it operated. The imagination of travelers and explorers has flattened the region, combining its features into a geographically uniform whole.

The judiciary, bitterly divided between federal judges Jueces Letrados and justices of the peace Jueces de Paz actually provided a balance, as their sometimes-opposing goals could also prove complementary.

When the teen became pregnant Aveli moved the household to the countryside, away from curious eyes. The judge, on the other hand, had no reason to fear Busso, nor did he seem particularly worried about enforcing a forty-year old presidential decree. European-born settlers encroached upon indigenous land, forcing the native groups to retaliate, and dragging the US government into these frontier conflicts.

Dumond, The Machete and the Cross: Vecinos cultivated both patronage relationships with state agents—which they used to ensure that the police in their communities were able to function, and that they could rely on them if needed—as well as wide-ranging social networks designed to protect themselves from the state.


Additionally, I analyzed hundreds of cases in other categories—mainly complaints over workplace injuries, gambling, rustling, assaults, rapes, and murders, as well corruption of minors—to provide context what kind of crimes did Patagonian officials and settlers care about?

According to Margarita, the little girl was familiar with the area around the Laguna, though she was not usually allowed to roam around it unsupervised but she tended to regardlessdiscounting the idea that she had simply taken a wrong turn. The main settlements in the central plateau only appeared after the state-owned railroad had created stations along its path, often in places with seasonal creeks.

In the first few years of the twentieth century, the Argentine government distributed booklets in several languages across Europe to encourage migration to northern Patagonia. Chapter Four centers on family conflicts to explore how private affairs affected public perception of individuals, and the consequences of these conflicts on reputation-based social networks, which were critical to accessing justice in the frontier. Ciudad Argentina, Ariel De la Fuente, Children of Facundo: Crews, For Prophet and Tsar: In trying to convince his superiors of the economic feasibility of his plan, Arce highlighted the possibility of using the religious order as an institutional repository for the children, saving the government considerable sums.

Despite criticism from reformers, this arrangement remained in place longer than initially thought possible or eventually thought desirable, due to petty power struggles and inertia. One of the first federal judges in the region, Juez Letrado Abraham Arce articulated an ambitious social program to systematically institutionalize the children of indigenous families, with the Salesian missions at its very core.

When the police finally deposed Suvachov, a thirty-one-year-old Yugoslavian peon living in the country for about four years, he seemed confused and angry about the investigation, unaware of his involvement in the family drama.

The vibrancy of a community, official recognition of a town, and the conferral of local political rights rarely correlated during the period, adding to the difficulty in mapping out the political life of Patagonian urban dwellers.

Books by Javier Villafañe

caballl However unsettling this turn of events, Juana could take comfort mavier the fact that she was probably not the only indigenous woman in the Colegio against her will at the time. For example, for popular participation in groups opposed to Liberal state, see: In Berkeley, Jenelle and James, Mia and Zach, Molly and Paul, and Megan and Joe punctuated the rhythms of graduate life with their unparalleled culinary prowess, timely happy hours, and contagious good spirits.


The judges, on the other hand, had a vested interest villafar having competent functionaries occupying those posts, rather than political appointees loyal to the governor. Towns, cities, and hamlets in northern Patagonia developed haphazardly, underscoring the uneven way in which the region was developed and integrated. What tools did they have to ensure their own success in the frontier, both within the villafaw of the state and outside of them?

Immigrants from overseas tended to follow countrymen into the frontier, coalescing in cdloso urban settings, and creating ethnic strongholds in northern Patagonia. And little Mateo, who came into my life at the end of this project, threatened to derail it, but ended up giving it meaning—I cannot wait to see the person that you will become. R Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire: I wanted to take this chance to thank the individuals and institutions that made this work possible.

Another benefit of unelected councils for governors was that they could keep tabs on their actions through the watchful eye of the comisarios, who also assumed the duties of managing the towns during council vacancies. Quaglia also used every chance he had to request more funds for the police. AGN, Inventario Policing the frontier: On the one hand, functionaries were appointed at the national level, and state agents answered to their supervisors in the executive branch rather than to any local constituencies.