Classical Theory of Paramagnetism Langevin’s theory of Para magnetism: (a) In natural conditions (in the absence of external magnetic field) Net dipole moment . diamagnets, that is the susceptibility, is according to the classical Langevin theory of describe than ferromagnetism and good theories of paramagnetism have. Langevin’s Theory of Diamagnetism, Langevin’s Theory of Paramagnetism, Langevin’s Function, Saturation value of Magnetization, Curie’s Law.

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For these materials one contribution to the magnetic response comes from the interaction with the electron spins and the magnetic field known as Pauli paramagnetism. Molecular structure can also lead to localization of electrons.

Each atom has one non-interacting unpaired electron. Even for iron it is not uncommon to say that iron becomes a paramagnet above its relatively high Curie-point.

Langevin's Theory of Paramagnetism

Materials that are called “paramagnets” are most often those that exhibit, at least over an appreciable temperature range, padamagnetism susceptibilities that adhere to the Curie or Curie—Weiss laws. The above picture is a generalization as it pertains to materials with an extended lattice rather than a molecular structure. Paramagnetism is due to the presence of unpaired electrons in the material, so all atoms with incompletely filled atomic orbitals are paramagnetic.

Randomness of the structure also applies to the many metals that show a net paramagnetic response over a broad temperature range. In pure paramagnetism, the dipoles do not interact with one another and are randomly oriented in the absence of an external field due to thermal agitation, resulting in zero net magnetic moment. The Bohr—van Leeuwen theorem proves that there cannot be any diamagnetism or paramagnetism in a purely classical system.

Due to their spinunpaired electrons have a magnetic dipole moment and act like tiny magnets. This fraction is proportional to the field strength and this explains the linear dependency. Even in the frozen solid it contains di-radical molecules resulting in paramagnetic behavior. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.


For low levels thory magnetization, the magnetization of paramagnets follows what is known as Curie’s lawat least approximately.

Although the electronic configuration of the individual atoms and ions of most elements contain unpaired spins, they are not necessarily paramagnetic, because at ambient temperature quenching is very much the rule rather than the exception. The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak. In principle any system that contains atoms, ions, or molecules with unpaired spins can be called a paramagnet, but the interactions between them need to be carefully considered.

langfvin The permanent moment generally is due to the spin of unpaired electrons in atomic or molecular electron orbitals see Magnetic moment. When a magnetic field is applied, the conduction band splits apart into a spin-up and a spin-down band due to the difference in magnetic potential energy for spin-up and spin-down electrons.

Paramagnetism – Wikipedia

Unlike ferromagnetsparamagnets do not retain any magnetization in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field because thermal motion randomizes the spin orientations.

Even in the presence of the field there is only a small induced magnetization because only a small fraction of the spins will be oriented by the field. Although there are usually energetic reasons why a molecular structure results such that it does not exhibit partly filled paramagnetidm i.

The distances to other oxygen atoms in the lattice remain too large to lead to delocalization and the magnetic moments remain unpaired. Paramagntism typically requires a sensitive analytical balance to detect the effect and modern measurements on paramagnetic materials are often conducted with a SQUID magnetometer.

Langevin theory of paramagnetism

Such systems contain ferromagnetically coupled clusters that freeze out at lower temperatures. They do not follow a Curie type law as function of temperature however, often they are more or less temperature independent. In an ordinary nonmagnetic conductor the conduction band is identical for both spin-up and spin-down electrons.


Generally, strong delocalization in a solid due to large overlap with neighboring wave functions means that there will be a large Fermi velocity ; this means that the number of electrons in a band is less sensitive to shifts in that band’s energy, implying a weak magnetism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Views Read Edit View history.


Obviously, the paramagnetic Curie—Weiss description above T N or T C is a rather different interpretation of the word “paramagnet” as it does not imply the absence of interactions, but rather that the magnetic structure is random in the absence of an external field at these sufficiently high temperatures. The quenching tendency is weakest for f-electrons because f especially 4 f orbitals are radially contracted and they overlap only weakly with orbitals on adjacent atoms.

An additional complication is that the interactions are often different in different directions of the crystalline lattice anisotropyleading to complicated magnetic structures once ordered. Additionally, this formulas may break down for confined systems that differ from the bulk, lnagevin quantum dotsor for high fields, as demonstrated in the de Haas-van Alphen effect.

This effect is a weak form of paramagnetism known as Pauli paramagnetism. Some paramagnetic materials retain paramagetism disorder even at absolute zeromeaning they are paramagnetic in the ground statei. The word paramagnet now merely refers to the linear response of the system to an applied field, the temperature dependence of which requires an amended version of Curie’s law, known as the Curie—Weiss law:. They are also called mictomagnets.

If one subband is preferentially filled over the other, one can have thoery ferromagnetic order. There are two classes of materials for which this holds:. The magnetic response calculated for a gas of electrons is not the full picture as the magnetic susceptibility coming from the ions has to be included.