Risque associé à l’utilisation de la loi de Benford pour détecter les fraudes dans le secteur de la mode [Risk of Reviews based on Benford Law in the Fashion. Français: Fréquences relatives d’apparition de la 1ère décimale d’un résultat de mesure selon la Loi de Benford Licence: Date, 31 March A Simple Explanation of Benford’s Law. R. M. FEWSTER. Benford’s Law, also known as the first-digit law, has long been seen as a tantalizing and mysterious.

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Benford’s Law and psychological pricing after the euro introduction”. MathWorld, A Wolfram web resource. In terms of conventional probability density referenced to a linear scale rather than log scale, i.

Détection de fraudes et loi de Benford : quelques risques associés – Munich Personal RePEc Archive

This is not always the case. Like other general principles about natural data — for example the fact that many data sets are well approximated by a normal distribution — there are illustrative examples and explanations that cover many of the cases where Benford’s law applies, though there are many other cases where Benford’s law applies that resist a simple explanation.

Benford’s lawalso called Newcomb-Benford’s lawlaw of anomalous numbersand first-digit lawis an observation about the frequency distribution of leading digits in many real-life sets of numerical data.

Download full text from publisher File URL: If a quantity is exponentially increasing benforx decreasing in time, then the percentage of time that it has each first digit satisfies Benford’s Li asymptotically i. Many real-world examples of Benford’s law arise from multiplicative fluctuations. On the other hand, a distribution that is mostly or entirely within one order of magnitude e.


After a short review of litterature and an introduction of my method, I test the adequation with Benford’s law of my 56 weekly sales volume time series with khi-square statistics.


It has been shown that this result applies to a wide variety of data sets, including electricity bills, street addresses, stock prices, house prices, population numbers, beford rates, lengths of rivers, brnford and mathematical constants [3]. The uniform distribution as might be expected does not obey Benford’s law.

The total number of observations used in the paper was 20, Other distributions that have been examined include the Muth distributionGompertz distributionWeibull distributiongamma distributionlog-logistic distribution and the exponential power distribution all of which show reasonable agreement with the law. Benford’s law is sometimes stated in a brnford form, asserting that the fractional part of the logarithm of data is typically close to uniformly distributed between 0 and 1; from this, the main claim about the distribution of first digits can be derived.

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For benofrd questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: The number of open reading frames and their relationship to genome size differs between eukaryotes and prokaryotes with the former showing a log-linear relationship and the latter a linear relationship.

On the other hand, the generalization of Benford’s law to second and later digits is not trivial, even for binary numbers. Then, I present the bias and their significance.

If there is a list of lengths, the distribution benfors first digits of numbers in the list may be generally similar regardless of whether all the lengths are expressed in metres, or yards, or feet, or inches, etc. In this case the specific tests for equivalence should be applied.


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Morrow has determined the critical values for both these statistics, which are shown below: However, other experts consider Benford’s Law essentially useless as a statistical indicator lloi election fraud in general.

Statistical Mechanics and its ApplicationsElsevier, vol. For example, the “number of heartbeats that I experience on a given day” can be written as the sum of many random variables e.

Although the half-normal distribution does not benvord Benford’s law, the ratio distribution of two half-normal distributions does. Discrete Ewens multinomial Dirichlet-multinomial negative multinomial Continuous Dirichlet generalized Dirichlet multivariate Laplace multivariate normal multivariate stable multivariate t normal-inverse-gamma normal-gamma Matrix-valued inverse matrix gamma inverse-Wishart matrix normal matrix t matrix gamma normal-inverse-Wishart normal-Wishart Wishart.

Applying this to all possible measurement scales gives the logarithmic distribution of Benford’s law. If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item.

J Amer Tax Lloi. An empirical distribution is called equivalent to the Benford’s law if a distance for example total variation distance or the usual Euclidean distance between the probability mass functions is sufficiently small.

A number of criteria—applicable particularly to accounting data—have been suggested where Benford’s Law can be expected to apply and not to apply. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.