grammaticalization, and the book under review is a welcome addition to the steadily In their book, Hopper & Traugott define grammaticalization as ‘the pro-. Traugott ; Hopper & Traugott []), is a basic type of change that may lead to Claims about “constructions” and grammaticalization in earlier work. Grammaticalization: Paul J. Hopper, Elizabeth Closs Traugott, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, second ed., [], xx +.

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Where grammaticalization takes place, nouns and verbs which carry certain lexical ohpper develop over time into grammatical items such as auxiliariescase markersinflections, and sentence connectives.

Synopsis of Hopper & Traugott Chap. 2

Newmeyer Limited preview – In Latin the original future tense forms e. Among recent publications there is a wide range of descriptive studies trying to come up with umbrella definitions and exhaustive lists, while others tend to focus more on its nature and significance, questioning the opportunities and boundaries of grammaticalization. This book presents a model of event structure for the analysis of aspectual constructions and argument structure constructions in English and other languages.

Though neo-grammarians like Brugmann rejected the separation of language into distinct “stages” in favour of uniformitarian assumptions, [4] they were positively inclined towards some traygott these earlier linguists’ hypotheses. In this cline every item to the right represents a more grammatical and less lexical form than the one to its left.

Lehmann also invented a set of ‘parameters’, a method along which grammaticality could be measured both synchronically and diachronically.

Articles 1—20 Show more. Retrieved from ” https: PJ Hopper Glossa 7 2, Traugktt definition was “the attribution of grammatical character to an erstwhile autonomous word”.

In both languages, – mente in this usage is interpretable by today’s native speakers holper as a morpheme signaling ‘adverb’ and it has undergone no phonological grammatixalization from the Latin source, mente. This study focuses on the use and meaning of grammatical markers of tense, aspect, and modality and identifies a It is believed that the stages on the cline do not always have a fixed position, but vary. Typology and Universals William Croft Limited preview – The studying and documentation of recurrent clines enable linguists to grammaticalizarion general laws of grammaticalization and language change in general.


The last decade has seen a rise in popularity in construction-based approaches to grammar. Bernd Heine and Tania Kuteva have described different kinds of phonetic erosion for applicable cases:.

It implies that a linguistic expression loses phonetic substance when it has undergone grammaticalization. Grammar slowly developed through four different stages, each in which the grammatical structure would be more developed.

Obligatorification occurs when the use of linguistic structures becomes increasingly more obligatory in the process of grammaticalization. Finally it became true future tense in almost all Romance languages and the auxiliary became a full-fledged inflection cf.

However, there are some processes that are often linked to grammaticalization. He suggested that in all languages grammatical structures evolved out of a language stage in which there were only words for concrete objects and ideas. It did however, mostly in Indo-European studiesremain an instrument for explaining language change. Joan Bybee and her colleagues present a new theory of the evolution of grammar that links structure and meaning in a way that directly challenges most contemporary versions of generative grammar.

Later studies in the field have further developed and altered Meillet’s ideas and have introduced many other examples of grammaticalization. The authors synthesize work from several areas of linguistics. Some linguists, like Heine and Kuteva, stress the fact that even though obligatorification can be seen as an important process, it is not necessary for grammaticalization to take place, and it also occurs in other types of language change.

Particular attention is paid to recent debates over directionality in change and the role of grammaticalization in creolization. Lessau notes that “unidirectionality in itself is a predictive assertion in that it selects the general type of possible development it predicts the direction of any given incipient case ,” and unidirectionality also rules out an entire range of development types that do not follow this principle, hereby limiting the amount of possible paths of development.

Heine writes that “once a lexeme is conventionalized as a grammatical markerit tends to undergo erosion; that is, the phonological substance is likely to be reduced in some way and to become more dependent on surrounding phonetic material”. The phonetic erosion may bring a brand-new look to the phonological system of a language, by changing the inventory of phones and phonemes, making new arrangements in the phonotactic patterns of a syllable, etc.

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For example, the Old English verb willan ‘to want’, ‘to wish’ has become the Modern English auxiliary verb willwhich expresses intention or simply futurity.


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Semantic bleaching, or desemanticization, has been seen from early on as a characteristic of grammaticalization. As Jespersen put it. Moreover, the documenting of changes can help to reveal the lines along which a language is likely to develop in the future. The process by which the word leaves its traugot class and enters another is not grammaticalizatio, but occurs by a gradual series of individual shifts. The authors synthesize work from several areas of linguistics I have to sing.

It is very common for full verbs to become auxiliaries and eventually inflexional endings.

Hopper P., Traugott E.C. Grammaticalization

An introductory essay for the volume PJ Hopper Tense-aspect: Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing boundinflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words. This was the first work to emphasize the continuity of research from the earliest period to the present, and it provided a survey of the major work in the field. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

An example is the phrase to up the ante, which incorporates the preposition up a function word in a verb a content word but without up becoming a verb outside of this lexical item.

However, phonetic erosion, a common process of language change that can take place with no connection to grammaticalization, is not a necessary property of grammaticalization. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Representing the culmination of two decades of the author’s research and thought, it explores the contribution of semantics to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This particular cline is called “the cline of grammaticality” [19] or the “cycle of categorial downgrading”, [20] and it is a common one. A number of semantic, syntactic and phonologicalprocesses interact in the grammaticalization of morphemes and of whole constructions.

This “Cited by” count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar.